An open standard for decentralised persistent communication
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Decentralised Group Communication

Fully distributed persistent chatrooms with no single points of control or failure, providing a common fabric to interconnect existing communication islands.

The Missing Signalling Layer for WebRTC

A simple standardised HTTP API for setting up WebRTC VoIP and video calls across different apps and sites

Data Fabric for the Internet of Things

Exchange and persist data between devices and services in an open distributed data fabric

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Decentralised Group Chat

Fully distributed persistent chatrooms with no single points of control or failure

WebRTC Signalling

Web-friendly signalling transport for interoperable VoIP and video calling

Internet of Things

Exchanging and persisting data between devices and services

How does it work?

Here are three Matrix homeservers, each with one client connected.The clients are all participating in the same Matrix room, which is synchronised across the three participating servers.

Alice sends a JSON message to a room on her homeserver.

curl -XPOST
  -d '{"msgtype":"m.text", "body":"hello"}'

    "event_id": "$"

Alice’s homeserver adds the JSON to its graph of history, linking it to the most recent unlinked object(s) in the graph.The server then signs the JSON including the signatures of the parent objects to calculate a tamper-resistent signature for the history.

The server then sends the signed JSON over HTTPS to any other servers which are participating in the room.

curl –XPOST –H 'Authorization: X-Matrix,...' –d '{
    "ts": 1413414391521,
    "origin": "",
    "destination": "",
    "pdus": [{
        "event_id": "$",
        "content": {
            "body": "hello world",
            "msgtype": "m.text"
        "pdu_type": "",
        "signatures": {
            "": {
                "ed25519:auto": "jZXTwAH/7EZ..."
        "sender": ""

The destination servers perform a series of checks on the message:

  • Validate the message signature to protect against tampering with history
  • Validate the HTTP request’s auth signature to protect against identity spoofing
  • Validate whether Alice’s historical permissions allow her to send this particular message

If these checks pass, the JSON is added to the destination servers’ graphs.

Destination clients receive Alice’s message with a long-lived GET request. (Clients are free to implement more efficient transports than polling as desired).

curl "

    "next_batch": "s72595_4483_1934",
    "rooms": [{       
        "room_id": "!",
        "events": {
            "batch": [
                    "event_id": "$",
                    "type": "",
                    "content": {
                        "body": "hello world",
                        "msgtype": "m.text",
                    "origin_server_ts": 1417731086797,
                    "sender": ""    
Bob sends a response to Alice’s message, and his server adds his message into his copy of the room’s history, linking it to the most recent unlinked object in the graph – Alice’s last message.

Meanwhile, Charlie also responds to Alice’s message – racing with Bob’s message.Alice, Bob and Charlie’s homeservers all have different views of the message history at this point – but Matrix is designed to handle this inconsistency.

Bob’s homeserver relays his message through to Alice and Charlie’s servers, who accept it.At this point Alice and Bob are in sync, but Charlie’s room history has split – both messages 2 and 3 follow on from message 1. This is not a problem; Charlie’s client will be told about Bob’s message and can handle it however it chooses.

Charlie’s homeserver relays his message through as well, at which point all three servers have a consistent view of history again (including the race between Bob and Charlie), and all three clients have received all the messages.

Later on, Alice sends another message – her homeserver adds it to her history, and links it to the most recent unlinked objects in the graph: Bob and Charlie’s messages.This effectively merges the split in history and asserts the integrity of the room (or at least her view of it).

Alice’s message is then relayed to the other participating servers, which accept it and update their own history with the same rules, ensuring eventual consistency and integrity of the distributed room history.

Open Standard

  • Simple pragmatic RESTful HTTP/JSON APIs
  • Open specification of the Matrix standard
  • Create and manage fully distributed (eventually consistent) conversations with no single points of control or failure
  • Send and receive extensible messages with optional end-to-end encryption
  • WebRTC VoIP/Video calling using Matrix signalling
  • Real-time synchronised history and state across all clients
  • Group conversation by default
  • Use existing 3rd party IDs (e.g. email, phone numbers, Facebook) to authenticate, identify and discover users
  • Trusted federation of identity servers, tracking public keys and 3rd party ID mappings
  • TLS by default

Open Source Implementations

There are many different clients, servers and application services – for a full list please see the Try Matrix Now page.

  • If you like command line clients, you can try out the Weechat Matrix plugin
  • If you like glossy web clients, try Riot (also available for iOS and Android)
  • Synapse – reference Matrix homeserver in Python/Twisted

Alternatively, write your own client using one of our SDKs:

The Matrix Community

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